Lexis and Semantics
- What word classes are used?
- Any collocations
- Use of pronouns?
- Use of verbs?
- Use of nouns?
- Adjectives and adverbs?
- Lexical/Semantic Fields
- Lexical connectors
- Figurative Language (similes, metaphors)
- Under/Over specify
- How does it start?
- Is it laid out in a logical order?
- Is it cohesive or disjointed? What is used to make it flow?
- Subheadings, headings?
- Chronological structure?
- Narrative structure
- Analysis (breaking down ideas into constituent parts)
- Problem solution (identifies a problem to be solved)
Spoken Discourse Structure
- Is the conversation laid out in adjacency pairs? (Greetings, questions, answers, command and response)
- Does the conversation follow a logical pattern?
- Is there turn taking?
How is it organised?
o Dominant speaker?
o Equal turns?
o Who signals the end/start of a turn?
o Topic management (who has the control?)
- What speaker moves are used: framing, initiating, focusing, challenging (interruption of a topic)
- Tag Questions
- Discourse markers (anyway, so,)
- False Starts
- Ellipsis and Ellision
Grammar and Syntax
- Does the grammar conform to the formality of the situation? (The more formal the more standard the grammar patterns)
- What sentence structures are used?
What clause structures are used?
What kinds of utterances are used? (declarative, imperative, emotive)
- Use of adverbial intensifiers to enhance meaning? (very, a bit)
- Incomplete utterances.
- False starts and pauses
-The visual elements of a text.
- Font choices
- Inclusion of pictures
- Accents and Dialect
- Context, implication and inference
- Grice’s Maxims
- What meanings do we take from words
- Background knowledge and modern language.