* Most people read by sounding out graphemes and forming phonemes.
* Yacht – strange words
* Dual method – 2 processes when reading
1. Direct access – pronounce each word e.g. det, cat, bat
2. Grapheme, phoneme conversion
* Use previous experience to help with new words.
* Look at the words more sophisticatedly
* The frequency of the word and the neighbouring words affect the way we pronounce each word.
Theory 1: FRITH 1985
3 Stages to a child’s development of reading.
Stage 1: LOGOGRAPHIC STAGE
* Pronounce individual letters
* Letters are connected with sounds
* Child can only link words to one phoneme
Stage 2: ALPHABETIC STAGE
* Child is more comfortable with the alphabet
* Can combine graphemes to make longer phonemes. E.g. ‘th’
Stage 3: ORTHOGRAPHIC STAGE
* Recognise a string of graphemes without having to decode them
* Greater phonological awareness – recognise more sound patterns
* Analogy – compare and apply patterns and rules.
Theory 2: CHALL 1983
6 stages to child’s development of reading.
Stage 0: PRE READING (birth to 6 years old)
* Children pretend to read, turn pages of books and repeat what they have previously had read to them.
* Rely on images to determine what the text is saying.
* Use logographic info to guess the words.
* Realise words are made up of sounds
* Recognise rhyme and alliteration
Stage 1: INITIAL READING/ DECODING STAGE (6-7 years old)
* Able to read simple texts.
* Relies heavily on text and focuses on visual images.
* Realise letter combinations represent sounds.
* Become aware of vowels and vowel sounds.
Stage 2: CONFIRMATION & GLUING STAGE (7-8 years old)
* A child can automatically decode words.
* High levels of comprehension and reading
* Ability to become more fluent
* Can control pace and are comfortable with reading situations
Stage 3: READING TO LEARN (8-14 years old)
* Reading to learn and acquire new knowledge
* Before this child relied on environment and speech
* Words mean a lot more to them
* Able to bring previous experiences and knowledge to the reading.
* Learn facts from a singular view point
* They need direct reconstruction
* Learn to read narrative texts.
Stage 4: MULTIPLE VIEW POINTS (14-18 years old)
* Begin reading and dealing with multiple view points
* Analyse and react critically to different view points
* Able to deal with layers of facts and able to edit them
* Able to deal with complex texts.
Stage 5: CONSTRUCTION & RECONSTRUCTION (18+)
* Read in detail and completeness to fulfil purpose (education)
* Aware of relevant and irrelevant information
* Can form their own opinions and ideas from what they read
* More interest shown = more info that is remembered
* Ability to criticise and question texts.